Combined Forced and Free Convection within an Enclosure Filled with a Porous Medium


Sanaa Turky Mousa Al-Mousawe†, Jinan Mahdi Hadi‡, Sinan Mazin Hazim‡†, Haidar F. Al-Qrimli‡‡, Laith Jaafer Habeeb‡‡†


†University of Baghdad, Department of Reconstruction and Projects, Baghdad, Iraq,

‡Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq,

‡†The State Company of Electricity Production / Middle Region, Ministry of Electricity, Baghdad, Iraq

‡‡Petroleum Contracts & Licensing Directorate, Ministry of Oil, Baghdad, Iraq

‡‡†Training and Workshop Center, University of Technology, Bagdad, Iraq,

Corresponding Author Email: [email protected], [email protected],[email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The paper numerically studies the enclose with force and free heat convection. Galerkin finite element approach was used for the numerical analysis, the investigated enclosure are square geometry with an inlet at the bottom and an opposite outlet at the top. The heat was applied to one side of the enclosure while the other walls were set as an insulated wall. Reynolds number was changed during the test from 50 to 175 (50, 100, 150, and 175), Richardson number was changed during the test from 0 to 30 (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30). The Nusselt number was calculated along the heated wall and as an average value, it was found that as the Reynolds and Richardson numbers increases, the Nusselt number is also increased. The isothermal lines and the streamlines were illustrated for different Reynolds and Richardson numbers.