Numerical Investigation of Nusselt Number for Nanofluids Flow in an Inclined Cylinder


Ahmed Mustaffa Saleem*


Northern Technical University, Technical Engineering College-Mosul, Iraq

Corresponding Author Email: [email protected]

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Numerical investigation was carried out for determination of Nusselt number for various nanofluids consisting of nanoparticles Silver (Ag), Copper (Cu) and Titanium Oxide (TiO2). This study used nanoparticles dispersed in water (Ag/Water, Cu/Water and TiO2/Water), also used nanoparticles dispersed in 60% ethylene glycol and 40% water by mass (Ag/(EG: water (60:40)), Cu/(EG: water (60:40)) and TiO2/(EG: water (60:40))). The Numerical study includes constructing the required model from the governing equations of flow through a horizontal and an inclined cylinder from the basic governing equations (continuity, energy and the momentum equations in the polar three – dimensional coordinate). The cylinder is kept in adiabatic mode. The Reynolds number is chosen (400), heat flux (2000 W/m2), Rayleigh number (1×105) and volume fraction concentrations (2.5 Vol %). The simulation is achieved by using MATLAB programs. The numerical results showed that the lowest Nusselt numbers are obtained for TiO2/Water, whereas Nusselt number of Ag/Water and Cu/Water is the highest Nusselt. This study focused on the effects of base fluid type (Water or (EG: water (60:40))) on the value of Nusselt number. Results showed that when used water as base fluid is more significant on the Nusselt number value than (EG: water (60:40)) for nanoparticles Ag, Cu and TiO2, respectively. Further, the Nusselt number has the highest values in the horizontal position of the cylinder compare with the inclined and vertical position. The values of the Nusselt number ratio (NUR) were evaluated to be (42%, 28%, 22%) for the three nanofluids (Ag/Water, Cu/Water, and TiO2/Water), respectively. Also, the values of Nusselt number ratio (NUR) were evaluated to be (33%, 24%, 19%) for the three nanofluids (Ag/(EG: water (60:40)), Cu/(EG: water (60:40)) and TiO2/(EG: water (60:40))), respectively. Nusselt number increases indicated as well as increases in flow strength [29]. Eventually, for results validation, the results of this study were compared with the previously published Khalid results [30].