Approaches of assessing the alternative fuels sustainability in the transportation sector
Van Tam Bui†, Xuan Thanh Dinh‡, Xuan Phuong Nguyen‡†,*, Minh Tung Phung‡‡, Van Vang Le‡†, Van Viet Pham‡†, Tan Thong Ngo‡‡,*
†Institute of Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology (HUTECH), Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
‡Faculty of Automotive Engineering, Hanoi University of Industry, Hanoi, Vietnam
‡†Institute of Maritime, Ho Chi Minh City University of Transport, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam
‡‡University of Technology and Education-The University of Danang, Danang, Vietnam
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The rapid decline of fossil fuel sources, coupled with the increase in environmental and climate extremes, has been driving a trend towards finding alternative fuel and renewable energy sources. However, economic, environmental, and technical factors have made alternative fuel solutions possible to enter a bottleneck state. Therefore, it is necessary to assess alternative fuel sustainability in the transport sector to orient the development as well as to minimize their negative effects. Overview analyzing and discussing the environmental and economic life cycle impacts of alternative transport fuels is the aim of this study which also is in comparison with traditional fuels. Selected fuels in this study comprising diesel, petrol, liquefied petroleum gas, biodiesel, ethanol, hydrogen, fuel cell, and electricity. The life cycle assessment process based on suitable methodologies was utilized to conduct an assessment of sustainability for the aforementioned fuels. Furthermore, in the discussion, environmental and economic impact assessments of selected fuels were presented to highlight the role of fuels for the future of transportation.