09.2021.436.447

A Review of Passive and Quasi-Passive Lower Limb Exoskeletons for Gait Rehabilitation

Author(s):

Niaam Kh. Al-Hayali†, Jumaa S. Chiad‡, Somer M. Nacy‡†, O. Hussein‡‡

Affiliation(s):

† Biomedical Engineering Department, Alkhwarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad – Iraq.
‡ Prosthetic and Orthotics Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad – Iraq.
‡† Biomedical Engineering Department, Alkhwarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad – Iraq.
‡‡ Automated Manufacturing Engineering Department, Alkhwarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Baghdad – Iraq.

Corresponding Author Email: neaam@kecbu.uobaghdad.edu.iq

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

The use of lower extremity exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation purposes is a substantial application. The continuous need of precise and systematic training systems during lower extremity rehabilitation process led researchers to propose and develop strong, lightweight, low power consumption passive and quasi-passive exoskeletons as mobility assistive devices. In this review paper, an up-to-date collective review is issued to elucidate and reveal recent modifications concerning gait rehabilitation passive and quasi-passive lower extremity exoskeletons. The differences between different types of passive and quasi-passive lower extremity rehabilitation exoskeletons are presented, and the structural characteristics are concluded. Results of recent research work in this field are so promising for future enhancements of gait rehabilitation exoskeletons. The passive lower extremity rehabilitation exoskeletons are often lightweight, but their controllability is restricted, while a number of lightweight, low power consumption quasi-passive lower extremity rehabilitation exoskeletons have been proposed and developed for patients with lower limb disorders to perform gait training and assist patients to restore their physical movements. However, if problems, such as light weight, small size and high-power consumption are fixed, the consistency with human body will be advanced and it will be possible to improve the rehabilitation of lower extremities.